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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
I cut grass with my 220 today for the first time. I have had it for about a year and used it mainly for just running around the property. On start up, there is some evidence of smoke from the muffler, but then seems to clear.

Here is what happened today. Engaging the deck, causes the engine to slow down, which I did not consider unusual. Getting into grass dropped the RPMs drastically. It cut but had to run in low range at wide open speed. Even with that, it moved very slowly and hated a slight incline. After about 15 minutes it started to smoke from the right side of the engine but not from the carb. There are no strange noises and engine sounds smooth. A short time later, the engine would just stall. I could then re-start it and cut grass until the next time. When I turned it off, it backfired.

Also the lever to engage the deck would not stay down unless I used a strap to hold it in position. Could this be from the power take-off being misadjusted?

I managed to get the best manicure for my lawn I have ever seen. The deck cuts a clean even line. Hard to get use to the left hand discharge though.

Nick
 

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#1.... your clutch is out of adjustment..... at minimum. It may need some rebuilding. First, make use of the stickie at the top of the forum and find the service manual for the clutch. Read it many, many times. If you follow it carefully you will eventually master the art of clutch adjustment. If the clutch does not hold that adjustment, then you have to dismantle the entire clutch one piece at a time and lay each piece out on a table in the order they came off the main shaft. You do it this way so you can see if some bozo put it together wrong. That's a clue. Then you carefully inspect all the parts. I won't go further unless you find out you can't adjust this clutch.

2. In order for your deck to work at its best, the blades must be sharp and balanced. They must not be bent. They must not be worn out. The six spindle bearings must turn easily and noiselessly. The belt idler pulley must also turn easily and without noise. The idler pivot must not be seized. It should move effortlessly with your baby pinky pushing it back and forth. The tensioning spring must not be stretched or deformed. If it is, then replace it with a new one. The spindle drive belt must be in good condition. It can't be badly worn nor can it be fully of cracks and have glazed sides that slip easily on equally glazed spindle pulleys.

The two belt idler pulleys on the Mule bracket must also be in good shape. There should be no sloppy side-to-side play and they should turn easily, smoothly and noiselessly. The tensioning spring must not be stretched or deformed and the tensioning pivot must move freely and easily. The drive belt must be of Kevlar construction with no signs of cracking, fraying or glazing. It should not be deformed and the edges where the sides meet the top should be sharp and not rounded off.

It cost you nothing but your time to check all these items. This is all about making sure there is no excess friction in the bearings that will rob hp from your engine. It's also about making sure the belts are doing their job and not slipping for some reason. You want all the hp generated by the engine to reach the cutting blades. All components are suspect. Removing the belts allows you to check those components individually.

If everything about the deck checks out, then you have to look at the "tune" of the engine. I know it runs but it does not run the way you want. Start with the easy stuff.

New plug, points and condenser and WIRE. Don't overlook the wire. Get a tin of Seafoam from NAPA and use it in accordance with the instructions. Your engine could be overheating due to mouse nests under the shrouds or excess dirt buildup on the finned areas of the block. To make sure, you have to remove the tins and check. Look at the flywheel. Are all the fins there? Set the valves because those can cause problems. Set the timing when you install the new points. You may have remove the head and decarbonize it, the valves and the piston.

BTW...... you should be cutting in Lo Range. Hi Range is not a work range, it's a travel range used to get the tractor from the garage to the job site. And you should also have the engine at WOT to get the best from the deck.

If you have not drained the hydraulic oil and replaced it with new motor oil, then that could account for your difficulty on inclines. Case/Ingersoll decks, when properly set up, will cut as good as or better than anyone else's deck.
 

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I would also consider checking compression a basic under your description, make sure the engine isn't worn out.
 

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I would also consider checking compression a basic under your description, make sure the engine isn't worn out.
If you do not defeat the ACR, then you won't get a proper reading.

Conducting a leak down test will reveal more about the condition of the engine than a compression test will but I agree that a compression test is a good start.
 

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^agreed, and if the 3 minute compression test is in spec, no need to proceed in that direction then. Speaking of which, I want to check my compression just for kicks, whats the spec on a 224?
 

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What color is the smoke and what color are the sparkplugs ? That will tell something about what may be going on. Like Castoff said, do the simple, free things first instead of changing parts. Changing parts can eventually solve a problem but you may never know which part did it.

:trink39:
 

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Discussion Starter · #10 ·
Deck is in good condition and everything spindles are good. I took it of the tractor, painted it, sharpened blades and actually did balance them. Put on a new belt also. Hydraulic oil looks clean, but will drain and replace it as suggested. Does the system have to be bled after re-filling? Have already downloaded the manuals and will check the clutch today.

I will also check the compression, spark plug, and the points. The engine starts very easily on the first revolution, every time, even when hot. I have ran at least three tanks of gas through this tractor and never once had trouble starting it.

The smoke is black when the engine is running. For the life of me, I can't remember color on start up. I do suspect that there is carbon buildup and am going to pull the head.

And thanks everyone for such a quick reply.

Nick
 

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I'm not trying to be a smart-*** when I say this.

There is no way anyone can look at oil with the naked eye and determine whether it is "clean" or not. Oil is often filtered so as to remove any contaminant large than 20 microns in size. To put some meaning into that, do you see this period ok? > . < Believe it or not, about 397 microns can reside inside that period.

Now another thing you cannot tell very often is the grade of oil or the type of oil that is in your hydraulic system unless someone used red tinted ATF. I cannot stress enough just how important it is to have clean oil in the hydraulic system as well as the correct oil. And the only correct oil is MOTOR OIL in one of the acceptable grades. So, if your tractor is filled with "Mystery oil" then now is the time to change it out. Normally, no bleeding is ever required BUT.... I did help one guy on another forum who swears that he could not get pump pressure until he bled air out of the PTO line. I wasn't there. It makes no sense to me but I'm not going to call the guy a liar. He experienced what he experienced and who am I to say otherwise?

Black smoke indicates a fuel-rich issue caused by a partially plugged air filter or the choke being partially on or an improperly adjusted main jet or an improperly adjusted float level or too cold of a spark plug. Blue smoke speaks to oil being burnt just like you see coming out of any 2-stroke engine's exhaust.
 

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The thread began with discussion that the engine will slow down under load. Everything posted here seems directionally correct, including things as simple as sharp blades (this is a 10HP engine ...).

Quick anecdote.

Working through issues on a 1987 222 recently. Nicely kept little tractor. Had a BIG problem. Engine would slow down really nasty when the deck was running and you tried to move anything more than just a wee bit of motion. This tractor was unusable for anything but pulling a little trailer.

Short story:

2 issues

1: the point gap was WAY off. This sets the spark timing and makes a big difference in how these engines will operate. It can't make proper power if it is firing off at the wrong time.

2: the unloaded speed was running at something around 4500 rpm! I knew it was wrong when I heard it, but WOW. Oh ... and in high range that baby was what we refer to as 'scary fast' on level ground. Two big issues here: a) the engine can't make power at that RPM (it's only really making speed) b) the hydraulic pump is flowing about 25% too fast and demanding LOTS of power once you engage any pressure. No wonder it was 'bogging down'.


Set the point gap, set the speed to 3600, mowed 1/2 acre. Done.

Results may not be typical, but it is something to think about.

Brian
 

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Don't worry about the compression. If the engine starts easily, compression is OK. The black smoke is your tip-off. As others suggested, the air filter could be clogged. Briefly run the engine W/O the air filter, and see if that solves the problem. If not, start leaning the high speed adjustment (the one on top of the carb, not the side) until the engine starts to nose over, then bring it back just enough until it runs smoothly. Don't worry about carbon, if the engine is running properly and not burning oil, it will clean itself out, you'll see it in the exhaust, espescially at night. Also make sure the cooling ststem is clean, this is very important. I'm not a Case expert, and I am assuming this has a single cylinder K engine in it.
 

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Discussion Starter · #14 ·
I adjusted the carb, and that stopped it from cutting out when I engaged the deck. Next I loosened the belt to the deck and now the deck engagement leaver stays down. I climbed an incline of about 30 degrees with the deck engaged and it walked right up there. Next I cut some wet grass about a foot high and although it left a few stalks standing I believe it did all it could considering the height and wetness. this also cut the black smoke drastically coming from the exhaust. Tomorrow I will install new points and condenser along and then fine tune the carb. Checked the RPMs and there are steady at 3600 when idling, but drop several hundred when under load. Still some black smoke coming from under the carb. Have to look into that maybe the exhaust recirculation or PVC or whatever.

For now I am satisfied that the engine is in good shape and just needs some fine tuning. Idles very smoothly and starts quickly.

Thanks everyone for the help and suggestions. The folks here never let you down.

Nick
 
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