The loud whine is most likely the starter turning but the bendix did not retract the gear into the ring gear. Happens some times. Obviously if that is all you get or it becomes too persistent you will need to pull the starter. It seems from your description that it is fuel related, but have you checked to see if you are getting spark? Either with an inline spark tester or you could remove a plug and lie it so that it can contact a grounded surface. Crank it over and see if you have a good spark jumping from plug to ground. Once you are sure of that you can focus on the fuel delivery.